Neo-Nazism is the ideology of post-World War II political movements seeking to revive Nazism.
The exact ideals adopted by neo-Nazi movements differ, but they often include allegiance to Adolf Hitler, antisemitism,
racism, xenophobia, nationalism, militarism, and homophobia. Neo-Nazis often use the symbols of Nazi Germany, such as the
swastika, Sig Runes, and the red-white-black color scheme.
Some groups and individuals who support the ideology openly declare themselves as Nazis or neo-Nazis, but others eschew
those terms to avoid social stigma or legal consequences. Some European countries have laws prohibiting the expression of
pro-Nazi, racist or anti-semitic views, thus no significant political party would describe itself as neo-Nazi in those countries.
Neo-Nazi activity appears to be a global phenomenon, with organized representation in almost every western country, as
well as international networks. Despite this, modern Nazi groups are extremely marginalized by the stigma inherent in their
politics. Individuals who have attempted to revive Nazism include Colin Jordan, George Lincoln Rockwell, Savitri Devi, Francis
Parker Yockey, William Pierce, Eddy Morrison and David Myatt.
Russian neo-Nazi organizations have generally defined themselves as standing outside of the political process, disdaining
the electoral system and advocating the overthrow of the government by force. Their ideology has centered on defending Russian
national identity against what they perceive as a takeover by ethnic minority groups, notably Jews and Caucasian immigrants.
Cleansing the nation by killing or expelling the non-Russians has been a generally accepted goal. Their ideology became epitomized
in the slogan "Russia for the Russians", a catchphrase also adopted by less extreme factions. Russian neo-Nazis
have generally not outlined discernible economic programs.
Russian neo-Nazis have openly admired and imitated the German Nazis and Adolf Hitler, and the book Mein Kampf stood high
on their reading list. The most prominent organization, Russian National Union, led by Aleksandr Barkashov, adopted a three-ray
swastika as its emblem (the Nazi swastika can be thought of consisting of two rays; the Z shaped segments). In order to harmonize
Hitler's notion of the Germanic master race with the Russian national feeling, the doctrine was updated to include all Aryans
or Indo-Europeans, both Germanic and Slavic. This definition explicitly excluded Jews and the people from the Caucasus, who
are widely seen as alien and black because of a slightly darker skin tone. Russian neo-Nazis have considered the Russians
to be a special and chosen nation, while looking down on others, including the non-Russian Slavic peoples.
In the United States, neo-Nazi groups are a sub-type of a wider array of anti-semitic and white supremacist groups. American
neo-Nazi groups tend to pay homage to — but are often less focused on — the specific tenets of the NSDAP
than some neo-Nazi groups in other countries.
Neo-Nazi groups in the United States can be traced back to the 1920s, with the US branch of the Nazi Party. This organization
merged with Free Society of Teutonia to form the German-American Bund. The Bund and other groups achieved a limited popularity
in the 1930s (at one point staging a rally with over 20,000 people), but rapidly faded with the onset of World War Two. The
groups either disbanded or were dismantled by force during the war period.
After the war, new organizations formed, with varying degrees of support for Nazi principles. It is difficult to determine
the extent of neo-Nazi organizations in the United States, because these groups are aware that public opinion concerning them
is negative, and there are organizations dedicated to monitoring their activities (such as the Anti-Defamation League and
Southern Poverty Law Center). While a small minority of neo-Nazis draw public attention, most operate underground, so they
may recruit, organize and raise funds without interference or harassment.
The United States Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, which allows political organizations great latitude in expressing
Nazi, racist and anti-semitic views. American neo-Nazi groups often operate websites, occasionally stage public demonstrations,
and maintain ties to groups in Europe and elsewhere. However, neo-Nazis are a tiny percentage of the national
population. More often than not, neo-Nazis are outnumbered by counter-protesters at public demonstrations, and are quickly
prosecuted for any crimes, such as hate crimes. In addition to targeting Jews and African Americans, neo-Nazi
groups are known to harass and attack Asian Americans, Catholics, Latinos, Italian Americans, Arab Americans, homosexuals
and people with different political or religious opinions.